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INTRODUCTION

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The World Health Organization defines zoonotic infections as those diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to or from humans. Zoonotic infections are often encountered in emergency care. Ticks are one of the most important vectors of human infectious diseases in the world.

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A zoonotic infection has presenting symptoms similar to many acute infections: fever, headache, myalgias, malaise, and weakness. Given this, a specific diagnosis is often difficult. Particular exposures or occupations that involve animal contact carry an increased risk of disease (Table 160–1). Recent travel, particularly in spring, summer, and early fall, or history of habitation in an underdeveloped country, are also risk factors. Zoonoses can occur at any time of the year, but in temperate climates, most zoonoses happen in the spring and summer.

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Table 160–1

Risk Factors for Zoonotic Infection

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Zoonoses that can present as an undifferentiated febrile illness are listed in Table 160–2.

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Table 160–2

Common Systemic Zoonotic Infections

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