1. Broderick J, Connolly S, Feldmann E, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke. 2007;38:2001–2023.
2. Ariesen MJ, Claus SP, Rinkel JGE et al. Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in the general population: a systematic review. Stroke. 2003;34:2060–2065.
3. Wojak JC, Flamm ES. Intracranial hemorrhage and cocaine use. Stroke. 1987;18:712–715.
4. Buxton N, McConachie NS. Amphetamine abuse and intracranial haemorrhage. J R Soc Med. 2000;93:472–477.
5. Gorelick PB, Weisman SM. Risk of hemorrhagic stroke with aspirin use: an update. Stroke. 2005;36;1801–1807.
6. Steiner T, Rosand J, Diringer M. Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with oral anticoagulant therapy: current practices and unresolved questions. Stroke. 2006;37; 256–262.
7. Robinson M, Clancy N. In patients with head injury undergoing rapid sequence intubation, does pretreatment with intravenous lingocaine/lidocaine
lead to an improved neurological outcome? A review of the literature. Emerg Med J.
8. Rincon F, Mayer SA. Clinical review: critical care management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care. 2008;12:237–251.
9. Clancy M, Halford S, Walls R, et al. In patients with head injuries undergoing rapid sequence intubation using succinylcholine, does pretreatment with a competitive neuromuscular blocking agent improve outcome? A literature review. Emerg Med J. 2001;18: 373–375.
10. Georgiadis D, Schwarz S, Baumgartner RW, et al. Influence of positive end-expiratory pressure on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with acute stroke. Stroke. 2001;32;2088–2092.
11. Anderson CS, Huang Y, Wang JG, et al. Intensive blood pressure reduction in acute cerebral haemorrhage trial (INTERACT): a randomized pilot trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:391–399.
12. Quereshi AI. Antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral haemorrhage (ATACH): rationale and design. Neurocrit Care. 2007;6:56–66. Results presented at International Stroke Conference, New Orleans, February 2008.
13. Morgenstern LB, Hemphill JC III, Anderson C, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2010;41:2108–2129.
14. Adams HP Jr, Adams RJ, Brott T, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischaemic stroke: A scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2003;34:1056–1083.
15. Mayer SA, Brun NC, Begtrup K, et al. Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:777–785.
16. Diringer MN, Edwards DF. Admission to a neurologic/neurosurgical intensive care unit is associated with reduced mortality rate after intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:635–640.
17. Oddo M, Schmidt JM, Carrera E, et al. Impact of tight glycemic control on cerebral glucose metabolism after severe brain injury: a microdialysis study. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:3233–3238.
18. Mendelow AD, Gregson BA, Fernandes HM, et al. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2005;365:387–396.
19. Zahuranec DB, Brown DL, Lisabeth LD, et al. Early care limitations independently predict mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2007;68:1651–1657.
20. Zurasky JA, Aiyagari V, Zazulia AV, et al. Early mortality following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2005;64:725–727.
21. Bederson JB, Connolly ES Jr, Batjer HH, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke. 209;40:994–1025.
22. Edlow JE. Diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Are we doing better? Stroke. 2007;38:1129–1131.
23. Feigin VL, Rinkel GJE, Lawes CM, et al. Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systematic review of epidemiological studies. Stroke. 2005;36: 2773–2780.
24. Schievink WI, Torres VE, Piepgras DG, et al. Saccular intracranial aneurysms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1992;3:88–95.
25. Schievink WI, Limburg M, Oorthuis JW, et al. Cerebrovascular disease in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome type IV. Stroke. 1990;21:626–632.
26. Bederson JB, Awad IA, Wiebers DO, et al. Recommendations for the management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2000;31:2742–2750.
27. Vermeulen MJ, Schull MJ. Missed diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the emergency department. Stroke. 2007;38:1216–1221.
28. Kowalski RG, Claassen J, Kreiter KT, et al. Initial misdiagnosis and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. JAMA. 2004;291:866–869.
29. Hunt WE, Hess RM. Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1968;28:14–20.
30. Longstreth WT Jr, Nelson LM, Koepsell TD, et al. Clinical course of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: a population-based study in King County, Washington. Neurology. 1993;43:712–718.
31. Le Roux PD, Elliot JP, Downey L, et al. Improved outcome after rupture of anterior circulation aneurysms: a retrospective 10-year review of 224 good-grade patients. J Neurosurg. 1995;83:394–402.
32. Dupont SA, Wijdicks EF, Manno EM, et al. Thunderclap headache and normal computed tomographic results: value of cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(12):1326–1331.
33. Naidech AM, Janjua N, Kreiter KT, et al. Predictors and impact of aneurysm rebleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:410–416.
34. Molyneux AJ, Kerr RS, Stratton I, et al. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;360(9342):1267–1274.
35. Molyneux AJ, Kerr RS, Stratton I, et al. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomized comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion. Lancet. 2005;366(9488):809–817.
36. Suarez JI, Tarr RW, Selman WR, et al. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2006;354: 387–396.