Question 4 of 34

Choose the correct statement about pediatric trauma:

Blunt thoracic trauma may cause pulmonary injury despite the absence of thoracic rib fractures.

Space-occupying hematomas are the most common sequelae of closed head injury.

Hypoxia occurs less rapidly than in adults.

Intraosseous infusion is not recommended for fluid resuscitation.

Fractures of the pelvic bone are relatively uncommon in children with blunt trauma.

The general principles of adult and pediatric trauma management are identical. However, age modifies injury patterns and physiologic responses. A pediatric thorax is more pliable than an adult thorax. The pediatric chest may absorb significant force without sustaining rib fractures. Pulmonary contusions, hematomas, and cardiac contusions may exhibit minimal external stigmata. Children have less inspiratory reserve and have higher basal oxygen consumption than adults. Thus hypoxia occurs faster in the pediatric patient than in an adult. Cerebral edema occurs readily in children who have suffered blunt head trauma as compared with adults who are more likely to sustain intracranial hematomas. Specific measures to decrease intracranial pressure include hyperventilation, elevation of the head, diuretics, and mannitol. An intraosseous line may be used for fluid resuscitation.

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