Throughout history, mass poisonings have caused suffering and misfortune. From the ergot epidemics of the Middle Ages to contemporary industrial disasters, these mass events have had great political, economic, social, and environmental ramifications. Particularly within the past 100 years, as the number of toxins and potential toxins has risen dramatically, toxic disasters have become increasingly common events. The sites of some of these events—Bhopal (India), Chernobyl (Ukraine), Jonestown (Guyana), Love Canal (New York), Minamata Bay (Japan), Seveso (Italy), West Bengal (India)—have come to symbolize our increasing potential for environmental toxicity. Globalization has led to the proliferation and rapid distribution of toxic chemicals throughout the world. Many factories that store large amounts of potentially lethal chemicals are not secure. Given the increasing attention to terrorism preparedness, an appreciation of chemicals as agents of opportunity for terrorists has suddenly assumed great importance. This chapter provides an overview of some of the most consequential and historically important toxin-associated mass poisonings that represent human and environmental disasters.
Inhalation of toxic gases and oral ingestions resulting in food poisoning tend to subject the greatest number of people to adverse consequences of a toxic exposure. Toxic gas exposures may be the result of a natural disaster (volcanic eruption), industrial mishap (fire, chemical release), chemical warfare, or an intentional homicidal or genocidal endeavor (concentration camp gas chamber). Depending on the toxin, the clinical presentation may be acute, with a rapid onset of toxicity (cyanide), or subacute or chronic, with a gradual onset of toxicity (air pollution).
One of the earliest recorded toxic gas disasters resulted from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius near Pompeii, Italy, in 79 A.D. (Table 2–1). Poisonous gases generated from the volcanic activity reportedly killed thousands of people.35 A more recent natural disaster occurred in 1986 in Cameroon, when excessive amounts of carbon dioxide spontaneously erupted from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake.19 Approximately 1,700 human and countless animal fatalities resulted from exposure to this asphyxiant.
Table Graphic Jump Location TABLE 2–1Gas Disasters ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 2–1 Gas Disasters
|Xenobiotic ||Location ||Date ||Significance |
|Poisonous volcanic gases ||Pompeii, Italy ||79 A.D. ||>2,000 deaths from eruption of Mt. Vesuvius |
|Smog (SO2) ||London, England ||1873 ||268 deaths from bronchitis |
|NO2, CO, CN ||Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH ||1929 ||Fire in radiology department; 125 deaths |
|Smog (SO2) ||Meuse Valley, Belgium ||1930 ||64 deaths |
|CO, CN ||Cocoanut Grove Lounge, Boston, Mass ||1942 ||498 deaths from fire |
|CO ||Salerno, Italy ||1944 ||>500 deaths on a train stalled in a tunnel |
|Smog (SO2) ||Donora, PA ||1948 ||20 deaths; thousands ill |
|Smog (SO2) ||London, England ||1952 ||4,000 deaths attributed to the fog and smog |
|Dioxin ||Seveso, Italy ||1976 ||Unintentional industrial release of dioxin into environment; chloracne |
|Methyl isocyanate ||Bhopal, India ||1984 ||>2,500 deaths; 200,000 injuries |
|Carbon dioxide ||Cameroon, ...|