1. Chesnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR, et al. The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma. 1993;34:216.
2. Walls RM. The emergency airway algorithms. In: Walls RM, Murphy M, Luten RC, eds. Manual of Emergency Airway Management. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008:14.
3. Bair AE, Filbin MR, Kulkarni RG, et al. The failed intubation attempt in the emergency department: analysis of prevalence, rescue techniques, and personnel. J Emerg Med. 2002;23:131.
4. Sise MJ, Shackford SR, Sise CB, et al. Early intubation in the management of trauma patients: indications and outcomes in 1,000 consecutive patients. J Trauma. 2009;66:32.
5. Walls RM, Brown CA, Bair AR, et al. Emergency airway management: a multi-center report of 8937 emergency department intubations. J Emerg Med. 2010. Epub ahead of print.
6. Sakles JC, Laurin EG, Rantapaa AA, et al. Airway management in the emergency department: a one-year study of 610 tracheal intubations. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31:325.
7. Sagarin MJ, Barton ED, Chng YM, et al. Airway management by US and Canadian emergency medicine residents: a multicenter analysis of more than 6,000 endotracheal intubation attempts. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;46:328.
8. Stephens CT, Kahntroff S, Dutton RP. The success of emergency endotracheal intubation in trauma patients: a 10-year experience at a major trauma referral center. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:866.
9. Bair AE, Panacek EA, Wisner DH, et al. Cricothyrotomy: a 5-year experience at one institution. J Emerg Med. 2003;24:151.
10. Erlandson MJ, Clinton JE, Ruiz E, Cohen J. Cricothyrotomy in the emergency department revisited. J Emerg Med. 1989;7(2):115–118.
11. Schaumann N, Lorenz V, Schellongowski P, et al. Evaluation of Seldinger technique emergency cricothyroidotomy versus standard surgical cricothyroidotomy in 200 cadavers. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:7.
12. Holmes JF, Panacek EA, Sakles JC, Brofeldt BT. Comparison of 2 cricothyrotomy techniques: standard method versus rapid 4-step technique. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;32:442–446.
13. Hill C, Reardon R, Joing S, Falvey D, Miner J. Cricothyrotomy technique using gun elastic bougie is faster than standard technique: a study of emergency medicine residents and medical students in an animal lab. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:666–669.
14. Sise MJ, Shackford SR, Cruickshank JC, et al. Cricothyroidotomy for long-term tracheal access: a prospective analysis of morbidity and mortality in 76 patients. Ann Surg. 1984;200:13.
15. Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Miyauchi R. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System Thyroid Ima Artery.
16. Isaacs JH Jr, Pedersen AD. Emergency cricothyroidotomy. Am Surg. 1997;63:346.
17. Gleeson MJ, Pearson RC, Armistead S, et al. Voice changes following cricothyroidotomy. J Laryngol Otol. 1984;98:1015.
18. Kuriloff DB, Setzen M, Portnoy W, et al. Laryngotracheal injury following cricothyroidotomy. Laryngoscope. 1989;99:125.
19. Holst M, Hertegard S, Persson A. Vocal dysfunction following cricothyroidotomy: a prospective study. Laryngoscope. 1990;100:749.