1. Roger VL. Epidemiology of myocardial infarction. Med Clin North Am. 200791:537–552.
3. Rogers WJ, Frederick PD, Stoehr E, et al. Trends in presenting characteristics and hospital mortality among patients with ST elevation and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction from 1990 to 2006. Am Heart J. 2008;156:1026–1034.
4. Giugliano RP, Braunwald E. The year in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1095–1103.
5. Tricoci P, Peterson ED, Roe MT. Patterns of guideline adherence and care delivery for patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative). Am J Cardiol. 2006;98:30Q–35Q.
6. Roe MT, Halabi AR, Mehta RH, et al. Documented traditional cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2007;153:507–514.
7. Fox KA, Goodman SG, Klein W, et al. Management of acute coronary syndromes: variations in practice and outcome; findings from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1177–1189.
8. Yeghiazarians Y, Braunstein JB, Askari A, et al. Unstable angina pectoris. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:101–114.
9. Jayes RL, Beshansky JR, D'Agostino RB, et al. Do patients' coronary risk factor reports predict acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department? A multicenter study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:621–626.
10. Pollack CV Jr, Sites FD, Shofer FS, et al. Application of the TIMI risk score for unstable angina and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome to an unselected emergency department chest pain population. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13:13–18.
11. Lee TH, Cook EF, Weisberg M, et al. Acute chest pain in the emergency room: identification and examination of low-risk patients. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:65–69.
12. Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, et al. An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;29:13–87.
14. Thygesen K, Alpert JS. Myocardial infarction redefined—a consensus document of the Joint European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology Committee for the Redefinition of Myocardial Infarction. Eur Heart J. 2000;21:1502–1513.
15. Forberg JL, Green M, Björk J, et al. In search of the best method to predict acute coronary syndrome using only the electrocardiogram from the emergency department. J Electrocardiol. 2009;42:58–63.
16. Slater DK, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, et al. Outcomes in suspected acute myocardial infarction with normal or minimally abnormal admission electrocardiographic findings. Am J Cardiol. 1987;60:766–770.
17. Tabas JA, Rodriguez RM, Seligman HK, et al. Electrocardiographic criteria for detecting acute myocardial infarction in patients with left bundle branch block: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52:329–336.
18. Sgarbossa EB, Pinski SL, Barbagelata A, et al. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of evolving acute myocardial infarction in the presence of left bundle-branch block. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:481–487.
19. Rao SV, Ohman EM, Granger CB, et al. Prognostic value of isolated troponin elevation across the spectrum of chest pain syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91;936–940.
20. Heidenreich PA, Alloggiamento T, Melsop K, et al. The prognostic value of troponin in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:478–485.
21. Ilva TJ, Eskola MJ, Nikus KC, et al. The etiology and prognostic significance of all-cause troponin I positivity in emergency department patients. J Emerg Med. 2010;38:1–5.
22. Fesmire FM, Christenson RH, Fody EP, et al. Delta creatine kinase-MB outperforms myoglobin at two hours during the emergency department identification and exclusion of troponin positive non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44: 12–19.
23. Budoff MJ, Achenbach S, Blumenthal RS, et al. Assessment of coronary artery disease by cardiac computed tomography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Committee on Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention, Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, and Committee on Cardiac Imaging, Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2006;114:1761–1791.
24. Silber S, Richartz BM. Impact of both cardiac-CT and cardiac-MR on the assessment of coronary risk. Z Kardiol. 2005;94(suppl 4):IV/70–IV/80.
25. Cury RC, Shash K, Nagurney JT, et al. Cardiac magnetic resonance with T2-weighted imaging improves detection of patients with acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department. Circulation. 2008;118:837–844.
26. Steel C. Severe angina pectoris relieved by oxygen
27. Weijesinghe M, Perrin K, Ranchord A, et al. Routine use of oxygen
in the treatment of myocardial infarction: systematic review. BMJ.
28. Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, et al. ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2007;116:e148–e304.
29. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril
, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet.
30. Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol
among 16 027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1. First International Study of Infarct Survival Collaborative Group. Lancet
31. Chen ZM, Pan HC, Chen YP, et al. Early intravenous then oral metoprolol
in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet.
32. Mattu A, Bond MC, Brady WJ. The cardiac literature 2007. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:817–833.
33. Meine TJ, Roe MT, Chen AY, et al. Association of intravenous morphine
use and outcomes in acute coronary syndromes: results from the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative. Am Heart J.
34. ISIS2 Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin
, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS2. Lancet.
35. Roux S, Christeller S, Lüdin E. Effects of aspirin
on coronary re-occlusion and recurrent ischemia after thrombolysis: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol
. 1992;19: 671–677.
36. Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ. 2002;324:71–86.
37. Barbash IM, Freimark D, Gottlieb S, et al. Israeli Working Group on Intensive Cardiac Care, Israel Heart Society. Outcome of myocardial infarction in patients treated with aspirin
is enhanced by pre-hospital administration. Cardiology.
38. Schwertner HA, McGlasson D, Christopher M, et al. Effects of different aspirin
formulations on platelet aggregation times and on plasma salicylate concentrations. Thromb Res
39. CAPRIE Steering Committee. A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel
in patients at risk of ischaemic events. Lancet.
40. Harrington RA, Becker RC, Ezekowitz M, et al. Anti-thrombotic therapy for coronary artery disease: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. 2004;126:513S–548S.
41. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, et al. Effects of clopidogrel
in addition to aspirin
in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med.
42. Alexander D, Ou FS, Roe MT, et al. Use of and in-hospital outcomes after early clopidogrel
therapy in patients not undergoing an early invasive strategy for treatment of non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines (CRUSADE). Am Heart J.
43. Chen ZM, Jiang LX, Chen YP, et al. Addition of clopidogrel
in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet.
44. Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM, et al. Addition of clopidogrel
and fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med
45. Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel
followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet.
46. Kushner FG, Hand M, Smith SC, et al. 2009 focused updates: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2004 guideline and 2007 focused update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI guidelines on percutaneous coronary intervention (updating the 2005 guideline and 2007 focused update). Circulation. 2009;120;2271–2306.
47. Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Neumann FJ, et al. Abciximab
in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention after clopidogrel
pretreatment: the ISAR-REACT 2 randomized trial. JAMA.
48. Antman EM, Giugliano RP, Gibson CM, et al. Abciximab
facilitates the rate and extent of thrombolysis: results of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 14 trial. Circulation.
49. Gurm H, Tamhane U, Meier P, et al. A comparison of abciximab
and small molecule glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of contemporary randomized controlled trials. Circ Cardiovasc Intervent
50. Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa with eptifibatide
in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The PURSUIT Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med.
51. Simoons ML, GUSTO IV-ACS Investigators. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker abciximab
on outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes without early coronary re-vascularization: the GUSTO IV-ACS randomised trial. Lancet.
52. Oler A, Whooley MA, Oler J, et al. Adding heparin
reduces the incidence of myocardial infarction and death in patients with unstable angina: a meta-analysis. JAMA.
53. Mikhailidis DP, Jagroop IA, Ganotakis E, et al. The FRISC Study Group. Low-molecular-weight heparin
during instability in coronary artery disease. Lancet.
54. Klein W, Buchwald A, Hillis SE, et al. Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin
with unfractionated heparin
acutely and with placebo for 6 weeks in the management of unstable coronary artery disease. Fragmin in unstable coronary artery disease study (FRIC). Circulation
55. Antman EM, McCabe CH, Gurfinkel EP, et al. Enoxaparin
prevents death and cardiac ischemic events in unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: results of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 11B trial. Circulation.
56. Blazing MA, de Lemos JA, White HD, et al. Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin
vs unfractionated heparin
in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who receive tirofiban
: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA.
57. Ferguson JJ, Califf RM, Antman EM, et al. Enoxaparin
vs unfractionated heparin
in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes managed with an intended early invasive strategy: primary results of the SYNERGY randomized trial. JAMA.
58. Mahaffey KW, Ferguson JJ. Exploring the role of enoxaparin
in the management of high-risk patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the SYNERGY trial. Am Heart J.
59. Yusuf S, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, et al. Comparison of fondaparinux
in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med.
60. Stone GW, Ware JH, Bertrand ME, et al. Antithrombotic strategies in patients with acute coronary syndromes under-going early invasive management: one-year results from the ACUITY trial. JAMA. 2007;298: 2497–2506.
61. Keeley EC
, Boura JA, Grines CL. Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomized trials. Lancet.
62. Busk M, Maeng M, Rasmussen K. The Danish multicentre randomized study of fibrinolytic therapy vs. primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction (the DANAMI-2 trial): outcome after 3 years follow-up. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1259–1266.
63. Krumholz HM, Anderson JL, Brooks NH, et al. ACC/AHA clinical performance measures for adults with ST-elevation and non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the ACC/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures (ST-Elevation and Non–ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Performance Measures Writing Committee). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:236–265.
64. Antman EM, Hand M, Armstrong PW, et al. 2007 focused update of the ACC/AHA 2004 guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2008;117:296–329.
65. Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists' Collaborative Group. Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomised trials of more than 1000 patients. Lancet. 1994;343:311–322.
66. Bavry AA, Kumbhani DJ, Rassi AN, et al. Benefit of early invasive therapy in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of contemporary randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1319–1325.
67. Hoenig MR, Doust JA, Aroney CN, et al. Early invasive versus conservative strategies for unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in the stent era. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD004815.
68. Hollander JE, Sites FD, Pollack CV Jr, et al. Lack of utility of telemetry monitoring for identification of cardiac death and life threatening ventricular dysrhythmias in low-risk patients with chest pain. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43;71–76.