1. Fields JM, Goyal M. Venothromboembolism. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26:649–683, viii.
2. Kearon C, Kahn SR, Agnelli G, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008;133:454S–545S.
3. Virchow R. Gesammalte abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen medtzin. Frankfurt: Medinger Sohn & Company; 1856.
4. Lichtman MA, Williams WJ, Beutler E, et al. Williams Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2005.
5. Merli GJ. Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis, thrombophilia, and the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis-pulmonary embolism in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2006;22:75–92, viii–ix.
6. Gordon SG, Franks JJ, Lewis B. Cancer procoagulant A: a factor X activating procoagulant from malignant tissue. Thromb Res. 1975;6:127–137.
7. Lopez JA, Chen J. Pathophysiology of venous thrombosis. Thromb Res. 2009;123(suppl 4):S30–S34.
8. Lopez JA, Kearon C, Lee AY. Deep venous thrombosis. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program). 2004: 439–456.
9. Sevitt S. The structure and growth of valve-pocket thrombi in femoral veins. J Clin Pathol. 1974;27:517–528.
10. Osterud B, Bjorklid E. The tissue factor pathway in disseminated intravascular coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2001;27:605–617.
11. Myers DD, Hawley AE, Farris DM, et al. P-selectin and leukocyte microparticles are associated with venous thrombogenesis. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38:1075–1089.
12. Rao LV. Tissue factor as a tumor procoagulant. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1992;11:249–266.
13. Friedman MH, Brinkman AM, Qin JJ, et al. Relation between coronary artery geometry and the distribution of early sudanophilic lesions. Atherosclerosis. 1993;98: 193–199.
14. Bockenstedt P. D-dimer in venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1203–1204.
15. Ogawa S, Gerlach H, Esposito C, et al. Hypoxia modulates the barrier and coagulant function of cultured bovine endothelium. Increased monolayer permeability and induction of procoagulant properties. J Clin Invest. 1990;85:1090–1098.
16. Closse C, Seigneur M, Renard M, et al. Influence of hypoxia and hypoxia–reoxygenation on endothelial P-selectin expression. Thromb Res. 1997;85:159–164.
17. Bongard FS, Sue DY, Vintch JRE. Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Critical Care. New York: 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2008:640.
18. Marino PL, Sutin KM. The ICU Book. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 2006:82.
19. White RH. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003;107:I4–I8.
20. Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Poggi J. Risk of pulmonary embolism and/or deep venous thrombosis in Asian-Americans. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85:1334–1337.
21. Anderson FA Jr, Wheeler HB, Goldberg RJ, et al. A population-based perspective of the hospital incidence and case-fatality rates of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The Worcester DVT Study. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:933–938.
22. Silverstein MD, Heit JA, Mohr DN, et al. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:585–593.
23. Mazza JJ. Hypercoagulability and venous thromboembolism: a review. WMJ. 2004;103:41–49.
24. Rosendaal FR, Koster T, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. High risk of thrombosis in patients homozygous for factor V Leiden (activated protein C resistance). Blood. 1995; 85:1504–1508.
25. Vaccaro P, Van Aman M, Miller S, et al. Shortcomings of physical examination and impedance plethysmography in the diagnosis of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. Angiology. 1987;38:232–235.
26. Righini M, Perrier A, De Moerloose P, et al. D-dimer for venous thromboembolism diagnosis: 20 years later. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:1059–1071.
27. Hager K, Platt D. Fibrin degeneration product concentrations (D-dimers) in the course of ageing. Gerontology. 1995;41:159–165.
28. Righini M, Nendaz M, Le Gal G, et al. Influence of age on the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for suspected pulmonary embolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1869–1877.
29. Goodacre S, Sampson F, Thomas S, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for deep vein thrombosis. BMC Med Imaging. 2005;5:6.
30. Blaivas M. Deep venous thrombosis. In: Ma OJ, Mateer JR, Blaivas M, eds. Emergency Ultrasound. 2nd ed, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing; 2007:373–391.
31. Blaivas M. Ultrasound in the detection of venous thromboembolism. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:S224–S234.
32. Blaivas M, Lambert MJ, Harwood RA, et al. Lower-extremity Doppler for deep venous thrombosis—can emergency physicians be accurate and fast? Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7:120–126.
33. Theodoro D, Blaivas M, Duggal S, et al. Real-time B-mode ultrasound in the ED saves time in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22:197–200.
34. Jacoby J, Cesta M, Axelband J, et al. Can emergency medicine residents detect acute deep venous thrombosis with a limited, two-site ultrasound examination? J Emerg Med. 2007;32:197–200.
35. Goodman LR, Stein PD, Matta F, et al. CT venography and compression sonography are diagnostically equivalent: data from PIOPED II. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:1071–1076.
36. Cantwell CP, Cradock A, Bruzzi J, et al. MR venography with true fast imaging with steady-state precession for suspected lower-limb deep vein thrombosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17:1763–1769.
37. Tapson VF, Carroll BA, Davidson BL, et al. The diagnostic approach to acute venous thromboembolism. Clinical practice guideline. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:1043–1066.
38. Rabinov K, Paulin S. Roentgen diagnosis of venous thrombosis in the leg. Arch Surg. 1972;104:134–144.
39. Fazel R, Froehlich JB, Williams DM, et al. Clinical problem-solving. A sinister development—a 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of progressive swelling and pain in her left leg, without antecedent trauma. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:53–59.
40. Suner S, Savitt D. Extremity conditions. In: Knoop KJ, Stack LB, Storrow AB, eds. Atlas of Emergency Medicine. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2002:370.
41. Houman Fekrazad M, Lopes RD, Stashenko GJ, et al. Treatment of venous thromboembolism: guidelines translated for the clinician. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2009;28:270–275.
42. Othieno R, Abu Affan M, Okpo E. Home versus in-patient treatment for deep vein thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD003076.
43. Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Cogo A, et al. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:1–7.
44. Brandjes DP, Buller HR, Heijboer H, et al. Randomised trial of effect of compression stockings in patients with symptomatic proximal-vein thrombosis. Lancet. 1997;349:759–762.
45. Schunemann HJ, Cook D, Guyatt G. Methodology for antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy guideline development: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008;133:113S–122S.